حق جلوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق خصوصی و اسلامی دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

اشخاص همیشه به‌دنبال خلوت‌گزینی و دوری از دیگران نیستند، گاه در پی این‌اند که در مقام تبلیغ و تأیید یک محصول یا خدمت تجاری، نشانه‌های هویتی خویش را به جامعه عرضه کنند و در مقابل، منفعتی مالی به‌دست آورند. در نظام حقوقی آمریکا، به‌منظور حمایت از حق اشخاص برای بهره‌برداری تجاری از نشانه‌های هویتی خویش، حق ویژه‌ای شناسایی شده است که در این مقاله حق جلوت نامیده می‌شود. به استناد این حق، شخص می‌تواند از نشانه‌های هویتی خویش (مانند صدا، تصویر، نام و دیگر ویژگی‌های شخصیتی‌اش)، آن‌گونه که می‌خواهد، استفادۀ تجاری کرده و از بهره‌برداری بدون اجازۀ دیگران از این نشانه‌ها جلوگیری کند. در نظام حقوقی کشورهای اروپایی هیچ‌گاه حق مستقل و ویژه‌ای همانند حق جلوت پیش‌بینی نشده است، با این حال، تلاش می‌شود از سایر نهادهای نظام حقوقی برای حمایت از ارزش تجاری شخصیت اشخاص استفاده شود. نظام حقوقی ما نیز، وضعیتی کم‌وبیش این‌گونه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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