عنوان مقاله [English]
Mediation and conciliation, as one of the oldest dispute resolution methods, have never found a similar place compared with arbitration or litigation. The numerous advantages of this method for both the disputing parties and the judicial system have led to special emphasis on this dispute resolution method in the Judicial Evolution Document and also have resulted in the signing of the Singapore Convention by Iran as an international mechanism for the enforcement of the settlement agreements. The recent approaches show the desire of Iranian legislators to develop conciliation over other dispute-resolution methods. But considering the current lack of executive support for most settlement agreements, the aforementioned goal is hard. The most important reason for the reluctance of individuals and businesses to mediate is the lack of enforceability for the settlement agreements as a dispute-resolution document resulting from the mediation process. The use of mediation has no logical or legal justification, because due to the lack of enforceability of the settlement agreements, the parties must refer to the competent judicial authority for the enforcement of the settlement agreements, and it is more logical that instead of spending money and time in mediation, they firstly refer to the aforementioned judicial authority to resolve their dispute.
This comparative study based on an analytical-descriptive method tries to examine the current status of executive support of settlement agreements, as the most important factor in the development of mediation.
The question of the research is whether the executive support of the result of the mediation process is necessary, and if the answer is positive, what approach should be adopted by domestic and international regulations to achieve the goal? This article hypothesizes that the use of the legal system from the benefits of mediation depends on the executive support of the settlement agreements, the accession to the Singapore Convention from the international point of view, and the application of the provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law 2018 from the domestic point of view. Finally, the article concludes that executive support of the settlement agreements is the most important reason for the success of the mediation and the benefit of this old method of dispute resolution in the commercial activists and the judicial system of any country. In the international arena, with the approval of the Singapore Convention, an effective step has been taken to eliminate the aforementioned weakness and develop mediation. In Iranian law, there is a positive attitude towards mediation, and this issue is evident in the signing of the Singapore Convention, but unfortunately, the regulations of the Iranian legal system have given very limited executive support to the settlement agreements. Due to the lack of sufficient enforceability for domestic and international settlement agreements in Iranian Law (except in special cases), the Iranian Legislator should enact a special statute inspired by the UNCITRAL Model Law 2018 to support the domestic settlement agreements and complete the process acceding to the Singapore Convention as soon as possible to enforce international settlement Agreements.
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