عنوان مقاله [English]
The increasing development of internal and international trade and commercial transactions, the need for speed and ease of commercial transactions, the important role of capital circulation, and the volume of exchanges in the economy of each country require the prediction of the tools needed in this field, which at the same time keep pace with developments, based on the needs of the market, ensure the fulfillment of obligations. Undoubtedly, a cheque, as one of the most common payment methods in internal business transactions, has a special and practical role in economic relations. Despite having many advantages, this document, as an alternative to bank notes, has some disadvantages, the most important of which is the worry of non-receipt of the cheque by the holder who has taken a piece of paper in exchange for the price, which he does not know if it can be receivable or not? because this document is dependent on the issuer's credit and has no inherent value in itself, as a result, no other support to receive is conceivable except credit and trust in the issuer. Despite the provision of a guarantee of multiple implementation guarantees and even the provision of criminal penalties for issuing bounced cheques, the position of this popular document in business relations has not been established for years. Cheque, as one of the important means of payment in domestic trade, has a significant contribution to commercial activities, and if it is designed for the use of this useful tool and is provided to the activists of this field, it can be effective in achieving macroeconomic goals. But let's not forget that a cheque is only a means of payment and it cannot be considered as a payment, and therefore there is always a concern for the person who received this document and lost money in return, that if the document leads to payment If not, how and by what implementation guarantee can he claim his rights.
The effects of bounced cheques, such as the density of court cases, the increase in the number of cheque prisoners, and the decrease in the validity of cheques to economic actors, which ultimately imposes a significant cost on society, have been from the very beginning of the appearance of cheques in the Iran laws, In the year 1925 and then in the current commercial law approved in 1932, has encouraged the legislator to especially support this commercial document by developing special rules and regulations, so that it can be used as an efficient payment tool.
In Iran's legal system, the various sanction guarantees foreseen for bounced cheques have a long history with the establishment of commercial laws. Only one year after establishing the current Trade Act and assigning 8 articles to cheques, the Iranian legislature approved the first sanction guarantee with a criminal approach in 1932 by adding repeated Article 238 to the criminal law. The legislator's idea of predicting the punishment for the issuer of the cheque was carried out in line with the crediting of the cheque, so that while encouraging the economic activists to use this document, their concern about the possibility of non-payment will be reduced and the trust of the people will not be taken away. However, in practice, the chosen way for the legislator to raise confidence by adopting the guarantee of criminal execution could not stop or reduce the upward trend of issuing bad cheques. Later, this approach was adopted by guaranteeing various and sometimes unique performances for this popular normal document, so that some of these privileges are not even provided for the official document.
The last act of the legislator in the direction of increasing the validity of the cheque is the amendment law of 2017, which consequently made changes to the regulations governing the cheque, the most important of which is the guarantee of bank execution. This new implementation guarantee includes a set of protective and punitive measures that are applied by the legislator without the need for a judicial order on the part of institutions providing financial and credit services.
It is worth noting that before the enactment of the above-mentioned amendment law, the bank had no legal obligation for a bounced cheque other than issuing a certificate of non-payment, and the cheque holder had no hope of the bank's cooperation to fulfill his rights. Whereas, according to the guarantee of implementation stipulated in the amendment law of 2017, the most important duty of banks and financial institutions is to receive unpaid cheques for the benefit of the holder. In my opinion, the most important sanction guarantee that the legislator could have established for crediting this document since the birth of the cheque is the bank implementation guarantee. The official statistics published by the competent authorities indicate a significant decrease in the issuance of bounced cheques after the implementation of the aforementioned law, but this method has disadvantages and problems that must be corrected. In this article, an attempt has been made to provide a legal and economic analysis of this unique performance guarantee.
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