تأثیر پیشینۀ اجتماعی قضات بر آرای قضایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار حقوق اسلامی، پژوهشگاه خانواده

2 دانشجو روانشناسی دانشگاه تهران

3 هیئت علمی پژوهشگاه قوه قضائیه

چکیده

     اگرچه معیار در تصمیم‌گیری‌های قضایی، قانون، شواهد و مدارک است، عوامل دیگری نیز نقش اساسی در این زمینه ایفا می‌کنند. پیشینۀ اجتماعی قضات، از عوامل تأثیرگذار بر آرای قضایی  است. پژوهش حاضر درصدد پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که آیا با تکیه بر آمار و شواهد تجربی می‌توان رابطه‌ای بین پیشینۀ اجتماعی قضات و آرای قضایی ایشان پیدا کرد؟ نگارندگان بر این باورند که پیشینۀ اجتماعی قضات از جمله دین و مذهب قاضی، تحصیلات، جنسیت، نژاد، سن یا تجربه، سوابق استخدامی، وضعیت مالی و تعلقات سیاسی می‌تواند بر آرای قضایی ایشان تأثیرگذار باشد. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی - تحلیلی است و کوشیده است با واکاوی پژوهش‌های مرتبط با پیشینۀ اجتماعی قضات به فهمی منسجم از این موضوع دست یابد و در گام بعد راهکارهایی را برای کمینه‌سازی این اثرگذاری ناخودآگاهانه ارائه کند. راهکارهای ارائه‌شده در این تحقیق را می‌توان به دو دسته راهکارهای ساختاری و شخصی تقسیم کرد: در گروه اول بیشتر درصدد ارائۀ پیشنهادهایی به‌منظور اصلاح و تقویت فرایند دادرسی برآمده‌ایم، درحالی‌که در گروه دوم تمرکز بر تقویت قوای معرفتی-شناختی در قضات تمرکز می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

JUDGES’ SOCIAL BACKGROUNDS AND JUDICIAL DECISION-MAKING

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Pourmohammadi 1
  • mohammad mahdi Yusefi 2
  • Mohaammad Forushani 3
1 Islamic Law Faculty Member
2 Ph.D. Student of Psychology, University of Tehran
3 Private Law Faculty Member
چکیده [English]

Although the focus of judicial decisions is on laws and evidence, other factors also play crucial roles. Judges' social background is one such factor hypothetically influencing judicial decision-making. The present study seeks to determine whether, based on statistical and empirical evidence, a correspondence can be detected between the judges’ social background and their judicial decisions. Does a judge's financial situation, for example, affect his or her judicial decisions? This essay will argue that a judge' social background, including his religious tendencies, education, gender, race, age and experience, employment background, financial status, and political affiliations, can influence his or her judicial decisions. Using descriptive-analytical method, the present study tries, first, to achieve a coherent understanding of this issue by analyzing the researches already carried out on the judges' social backgrounds and, in the next step, to provide solutions to minimize this unconscious impact. The solutions presented in this research fall into two categories: personal strategies and structural strategies. In the first category, our goal will be to strengthen the epistemological powers of judges, while in the second, we will suggest ways to minimize the impact of judges' social backgrounds by structurally reforming the judiciary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Judges' Understanding
  • Judicial Psychology
  • decision-making
  • Legal Hermeneutics
  • Legal Realists.‎
  1.  

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