عنوان مقاله [English]
Our lawyers introduced the "General Theory of Obligations" into the civil laws, imitating the French legal system. In such a way according to their belief, what connects the sub-categories of the property chapter is a set of rules and principles that govern how an obligation is created, transferred, and lost. Our civil law, with a meaningful possession in the content and regardless of its western origin, classified these categories under the title of “cause of ownership".
In this fundamental and descriptive study, the researchers are looking for the difference between the relationship of the property subcategories in French and Iranian civil law, and what is the legal nature of the relationship in Islamic law. The scope of the research is summarized in the subcategories of the property chapter, which are classified under the following categories: possession, contracts and non-contractual indebtedness, pre-emption, and inheritance. The question that is raised here is, what is the difference between these two legal systems, in which property is classified under the title of obligation and the title of ownership?
The authors believe that what has caused our civil law to classify these subcategories of property under the title of "cause of ownership" is the "property theory “which is the ruling discourse in the Islamic legal system about property. What causes these sub-categories of property to be systematically connected is the title "property". Therefore, the topics of possession, contracts, non-contractual indebtedness, pre-emption, and inheritance under the chapter on property are referred to as a set of rules and
principles governing property that govern how property is created, transferred, and lost. Accordingly, property theory can be considered as a crossroad that solves most of the legal problems with property categories requiring passing through, which determines the necessity of its design in the form of a general theory. Property that is under the protection of the general concept of "economic value" under various forms, including object and benefit, without resorting to obligation, is owned by individuals, which depends on the difference in the type of property, the method of submission and the guarantee of enforcement of property violations.
Because the ruling theory under the chapter of property in Islamic law is ownership, it can be said that in Islamic law, instead of the topics of contracts and non-contractual indebtedness, they are applied to a set of rules and principles, which are about how to create an obligation, transfer and lose. In this way, based on the fact that ownership is created at a certain time, exists, and finally ends, the legal system aims to meet the needs of each of these courses. The legal system recognizes the reasons for creating an ownership relationship, by which ownership is created between a person and property. After creating the ownership, it is necessary to transfer it and because the ownership relationship is between the owner and the property, one of the effects of this relationship is the owner's sovereignty over the property; so The legal system allows the transfer of ownership by changing the parties’ relationship and based on the general theory of ownership, it designs "ownership loss" in which it is categorized the causes of ownership loss.