تحلیلی بر عناصر شناختاری و موارد کاربست قرارداد لیسانس فرند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق تجارت بین‌الملل و حقوق مالکیت فکری و فضای مجازی، دانشکدة حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد رشتة حقوق مالکیت فکری، دانشکدة حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

     قرارداد لیسانس منصفانه، معقول و غیرتبعیض‌آمیز (فرند)، از راهبردهای مبتنی بر حقوق مالکیت فکری سازمان‌های تعیین استاندارد در مواجهه با فناوری‌هایی است که به‌حدی در یک صنعت اهمیت می‌یابند که به یک استاندارد فنی تبدیل می‌شوند. این قرارداد نقشی برجسته در توسعة استانداردهای فنی و بهره‌برداری و انتقال فناوری‌های ضروری استاندارد ایفا می‌کند. مقالة پیش رو می‌کوشد تا با روش کتابخانه‌ای و به شیوة تحلیلی- توصیفی و با تعمق در رهیافت‌های مطروحه در حقوق کشورهای مختلف، ابعاد شناختاری قرارداد لیسانس فرند را تبیین و مواردی را که بنگاه‌های متقاضی یا مراجع قانونی از ظرفیت‌های این دست توافقات بهره می‌گیرند، بررسی  کند. نتایج این نوشتار مبین آن است که ترسیم ساختار لیسانس‌های فرند از سوی سازمان‌های تعیین استاندارد و محاکم با ابهامات و چالش‌های جدی مواجه است که خود بر تعیین حدود حقوق و تعهدات طرفین و نحوة استفاده از فناوری‌های ضروری استاندارد تأثیر نامطلوب گذاشته است. نظام حقوقی ایران از بستر حقوقی لازم جهت کاربست لیسانس فرند بی‌بهره است و قواعد عام موجود نیز گاه بیش از اینکه گره‌گشای معضلات باشند، خود به مانعی بر سر استفادة گسترده و کارا از این دست فناوری‌ها بدل می‌شوند؛ ازاین‌رو نوشتار حاضر می‌کوشد تا ضمن تحلیل موضوع و بهره‌گیری از تجربیات و یافته‌های حقوقی دیگر نظام‌ها، پیشنهادها و راهکارهایی را در مواجهه با مسائل خاص این توافق در چارچوب حقوق ایران ارائه کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. Abbott, Alden (2016), "US Government Antitrust Intervention in Standard-Setting Activities and the Competitive Process", Vand. J . Ent. & Tech. L, Vol. 18.
  2. Arsego, David, "The Problem with FRAND: How the Licensing Commitments of Standard-Setting Organizations Result in the Misvaluing of Patents.", Brooklyn J. Int'l L, Vol. 41.
  3. Beach, Julian (2016), "Transatlantic (F)RANDs and Converging Standards: Finding Balance Between Jurisdictions in International Standard Setting"; Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2632679 Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  4. Besen, Stanley (2016), "Why Royalties for Standard Essential Patent Should Not Be Set by the Court", Chi.Kent J . Intell. Prop, Vol. 15.
  5. Bharadwaj, Ashish et al (2017), Complications and Quandaries in the ICT Sector: Standard Essential Patents and Competition Issues, Springer, India.
  6. Brooks, Roger & Geradin, Damien (2010), "Interpreting and Enforcing the Voluntary FRAND Commitment"; Available at: https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=1645878 Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  7. Camesasca, Peter, et al (2013), "Injunctions for Standard Essential Patents: Justice is not Blind", Journal of Competition law & Economics, Vol. 9, Issue. 2.
  8. Carlton, Dennis & Shampine Allan (2013), "An Economic Interpretation of FRAND" Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 9, Issue. 3.
  9. Contreras, Jorge (2016), "FRAND Market Failure: IPXI's Standards-Essential Patent License Exchange" Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property, Vol. 15.
  10. Contreras, Jorge (2015), "A Brief History of FRAND: Analyzing Current Debates in Standard Setting and Antitrust through a Historical Lens" Antitrust Law Journal, Vol. 80, Issue. 1.
  11. Cotter, Thomas (2013), "Comparative Law and Economics of Standard-essential Patents and FRAND Royalties." Tex. Intell. Prop. LJ, Vol. 22.
  12. Cowie, Michael & Lavelle Joseph (2002), "Patents Covering Industry Standards: The Risks to Enforceability Due to Conduct Before Standard-Setting Organizations" AIPLA QJ, Vol. 30.
  13. De Vellis, James (2003), "Patenting Industry Standards: Balancing the Rights of Patent Holders with the Need for Industry-Wide Standards" AIPLA QJ, Vol. 31.
  14. Galli, Niccolo (2016), "The FRAND Defense Up To Huawei/ZTE", Bocconi Legal Papers, Vol. 7.
  15. Geradin, Damien & Miguel Rato (2010), "FRAND Commitments and EC Competition Law: A Reply to Philippe Chappatte", European Competition Journal, Vol. 6, Issue.1.
  16. Geradin, Damien & Rato, Miguel (2007), "Can Standard-setting Lead to Exploitative Abuse? A Dissonant View on Patent Hold-up, Royalty Stacking and the Meaning of FRAND", European Competition Journal, Vol. 3, Issue.1.
  17. Geradin, Damien (2013), "The Meaning of Fair and Reasonable in the Context of Third-party Determination of Frand Terms",Geo. Mason L.Rev, Vol. 21.
  18. Ghidini, Gustavo (2006), Innovation, Competition and Consumer Welfare in Intellectual Property Law, Edward Elgar, UK.
  19. Gilbert, Richard (2010), "Deal or No Deal- Licensing Negotiations in Standard-Setting Organizations", Antitrust LJ, Vol. 77.
  20. Gupta, Kirti (2015), "Technology Standards and Competition in the Mobile Wireless Industry", George Mason LawReview, Vol. 22.
  21. Hoehn, Thomas & Lewis, Alex (2012), "Interoperability Remedies and Innovation: A Review of Recent Case Law; Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268187594_Interoperability_remedies_and_innovation_a_review_of_recent_case_law Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  22. Hong, Dae Sik (2015), "A Review of Korean Competition Law and Guidelines for Exercise of Standard related Patents", Journal of Korean Law, Vol. 15.
  23. Hurwitz, Justin (2008), "The Value of Patents in Industry Standards: Avoiding License Arbitrage with Voluntary Rules", AIPLA QJ, Vol. 36.
  24. Ji, Helen, (2014), "District Courts Versus the USITC: Considering Exclusionary Relief for F/RAND-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents", Mich. Telecomm & Tech. L. Rev, Vol. 21.
  25. Kattan, Joseph (2013), "FRAND Wars and Section 2", Antitrust, Vol. 27
  26. Keele, Layne (2015), "Holding Standards for RANDsome: A Remedial Perspective on RAND Licensing Commitments" U. Kan. L. Rev, Vol. 64.
  27. Keeler, Robert  (2013), "Why Can’t We Be (F) rands: The Effect of Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory Commitments on Standard-Essential Patent Licensing", Cardozo Arts & Ent. LJ, Vol. 32.
  28. Kesan, Jay & Hayes, Carol (2014), "FRAND's Forever: Standards, Patent Transfers, and Licensing Commitments" Ind. LJ, Vol. 89.
  29. Kim, Wonil & Lee, Kwang-Wook (2013), Intellectual Property & Antitrust in 23 jurisdictions worldwide, Korea, Law Business Research Ltd, UK.
  30. Ko, Haksoo (2013), "Facilitating Negotiation for Licensing Standard- Essential Patents in the Shadow of Injunctive Relief Possibilities", Tex. Intell. Prop. LJ, Vol. 22.
  31. Kokoulina, Olga (2016), "How Much Is Enough? Standard-Essential Patents and Abuse", Tulane Journal of Technology & Intellectual Property, Vol. 12.
  32. Layne-Farrar, Anne (2010), "Nondiscriminatory Pricing: Is Standard Setting Different?" Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 6, Issue.4.
  33. Lee, Jyh-An (2016), "Implementing the FRAND Standard in China", Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, Vol. 19, No. 1.
  34. Lee, Se Young & Nellis, Stephen (2016), "South Korea fines Qualcomm $854 Million for Violating Competition Laws"; Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-qualcomm-antitrust/south-korea-fines-qualcomm-854-million-forviolating-competition-laws-idUSKBN14H062. Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  35. Lemley, Mark & Shapiro, Carl (2006), "Patent Holdup and Royalty Stacking", Tex . L. Rev, Vol. 85.
  36. Leonard, Gregory & Lopez, Mario (2014), "Determining RAND Royalty Rates for Standard-Essential Patents", Antitrust, Vol. 29.
  37. Li, Benjamin (2016), "The Global Convergence of FRAND Licensing Practices: Towards “Interoperable” Legal" Berkeley Tech. L.J, Vol. 31.
  38. Li, Richard & Wang, Richard Li-dar (2017), "Reforming and Specifying Intellectual Property Rights Policies of Standard-Setting Organizations: Towards Fair and Efficient Patent Licensing and Dispute Resolution", U. Ill. JL Tech. & Pol'y, Vol. 2017, No. 1.
  39. Lichtman, Doug (2010), "Understanding the RAND Commitment", Hous. L. Rev, Vol. 47.
  40. Lim, Daryl (2013), "Patent Misuse and Antitrust Law: Empirical, Doctrinal and Policy Perspectives"; Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2456387 Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  41. Lim, Daryl (2014), "Standard Essential Patents, Trolls and the Smartphone Wars: Triangulating the End Game"; Available at: https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2495547 Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  42. Lopez Galdos, Marianela (2016), "Antitrust Policy Tools & IP Rights: U.S., Transatlantic & International Effects", Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property, Vol. 16.
  43. Maldonado, Kassandra (2014), "Breaching RAND and reaching for reasonable: Microsoft v. Motorola and standard-Essential Patent Litigation", Berkeley Tech. LJ, Vol. 29.
  44. Mariniello, Mario (2011), "Fair,Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory (FRAND) Terms: A Challenge  for Competition Authorities", Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3.
  45. Ragavan, Srividhya et al (2016), "Frand v. Compulsory Licensing: The Lesser of the Two Evils", Duke L. & Tech. Rev, Vol. 14.
  46. Ratliff, James & Rubinfeld, (2013), "The Use and Threat of Injunctions in the RAND Context", Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1.
  47. Sidak, Gregory (2015), "The Meaning of FRAND, Part II: Injunctions", Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 11, Issue. 1.
  48. Sidak, Gregory (2013), "The Meaning of FRAND, Part I: Royalties", Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Vol. 9, Issue. 4.
  49. Sidak, Gregory (2016), "The Value of a Standard Versus the Value of Standardization"; Available at: https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2700931. Last visited: 31/3/2019.
  50. Simcoe, Timothy (2012), "Private and Public Approaches to Patent Hold-Up in Industry Standard Setting", The Antitrust Bulletin, Vol. 57, No.1.
  51. Strenberg, Daniel (2014), "A Brief History of Rand", BUJ Sci. & Tech. L, Vol. 20.
  52. Swanson, Daniel & Baumol William (2005), "Reasonable and Nondiscriminatory (RAND) Royalties, Standard Selection, and Control of Market Power", Antitrust L.J, Vol. 73.
  53. Weinreich-Zhao, Tingting (2015), Chinese Merger Control Law, Springer, Germany.